A city in western central Italy, the capital of Tuscany, on the Arno River; population 365,659 (2008). Florence was a leading center of the Italian Renaissance, especially under the rule of the Medici family during the 15th century. An industrial and commercial city in northwestern Alabama, on the Tennessee River, east of Muscle Shoals; population 37,877 (est. 2008). A city in northern Kentucky, southwest of Covington; population 27,745 (est. 2008). A commercial city in northeastern South Carolina; population 31,570 (est. 2008).